Aim: This study compared the prevalence of tooth agenesis out of the cleft area in patients with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP) with and without agenesis of maxillary permanent lateral incisors.
Methods: Tooth agenesis was evaluated in panoramic radiographs taken between 7 and 11 years of age. Intergroup comparison of tooth agenesis frequency was performed using the chi-square test (P<0.05) and the odds ratio. A sample of 130 patients (87 male, 43 female) with non-syndromic bilateral cleft lip and palate was selected. Group P (n = 44) consisted of individuals with the presence of maxillary lateral incisors on the right and left sides; group UA (n = 40) comprised patients with unilateral agenesis of lateral incisors; group BA (n = 46) comprised patients with bilateral agenesis of lateral incisors. Intergroup comparison for frequency of tooth agenesis outside the cleft area was performed using Chi-square test (p-value <0.05 was considered significant) and the odds ratio (p<0.016).
Results: The prevalence of dental agenesis out of the cleft area in groups P, UA, and BA was 31.8%, 32.5%, and 60.8%, respectively. Group BA showed a significantly greater prevalence of tooth agenesis compared with the UA and P groups. There was no significant difference in the odds ratio between any groups. The most common absent teeth were the maxillary second premolars followed by the mandibular second premolars for all groups.
Conclusion: Patients with BCLP and bilateral agenesis of maxillary lateral incisors show an increased prevalence of other permanent teeth. This association demonstrates a genetic background of maxillary lateral incisor agenesis at the cleft area.