Document Type : Review article


1 Department of Orthodontics, Army College of Dental Sciences, KNR University, Secunderabad, Telangana, India

2 Professor and Head Department of Orthodontics, Army College of Dental Sciences Secunderabad India


Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze and synthesize data from animal research on the impact of hormones and their synthetic derivatives on orthodontic tooth movement by altering calcium metabolism.
Methods: Eight databases were scanned electronically, followed by a manual search, until 27 February 2022. Animal experiments were chosen with control groups exploring the impact on orthodontic tooth movement with calcitonin, calcium, parathyroid hormone, teriparatide, and vitamin D. The reporting quality of primary studies was assessed using the CAMARADES tool. Data was collected from related studies and SYRCLE’s risk of bias tool was utilized to determine risk of bias.
Results: Of the 2388 documents obtained in the search, 11 studies were included. The amount of orthodontic tooth movement reduced with the administration of calcitonin and calcium. However, with parathyroid hormone, teriparatide, and vitamin D, acceleration of tooth movement was noted. The results were statistically significant omitting three studies that assessed orthodontic tooth movement with calcium, vitamin D, and parathyroid hormone. Root resorption increased with calcium, vitamin D, PGE2, and a dose-dependent decrease was seen in higher doses of calcitonin. Bone mineral density improved with increased parathyroid hormone levels.
Conclusion: Vitamin D, their synthetic derivatives, and parathyroid hormone were found to increase orthodontic tooth movement. Calcitonin showed a dose dependent reduction in orthodontic tooth movement.


Main Subjects

  1. Asiry MA. Biological aspects of orthodontic tooth movement: A review of literature. Saudi J Biol Sci. 2018;25(6):1027-32. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.03.008. PMID: 30174498.
  2. Arqub SA, Gandhi V, Iverson MG, Ahmed M, Kuo CL, Mu J, et al. The effect of the local administration of biological substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review of human studies. Prog Orthod. 2021;22(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s40510-021-00349-5. PMID: 33523325.
  3. Aubin J, Bonnelye E. Osteoprotegerin and its ligand: a new paradigm for regulation of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Osteoporos Int. 2000; 11(11):905–13. doi: 10.1007/s001980070028. PMID: 11193242.
  4. Diravidamani K, Sivalingam SK, Agarwal V. Drugs influencing orthodontic tooth movement: An overall review. J Pharm Bioall Sci. 2012;4(2):299-303. doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.100278. PMID: 23066275.
  5. Shamseer L, Moher D, Clarke M, Gherse D, Liberati A, Petticrew M, et al. Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation. BMJ. 2015;349:7647. doi: 10.1136/bmj.g7647. PMID: 25555855.
  6. Higgins JPT, Green S. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0. Available at: http:// Accessed April 2021.
  7. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gotzcsche PC, Loannidis JPA, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med. 2009; 6(7):e1000100. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100. PMID: 19621070.
  8. Ouzzani M, Hammady H, Fedorowicz Z, Elmagarmid A. Rayyan—a web and mobile app for systematic reviews. Syst Rev. 2016;5(1):1-10. doi: 10.1186/ s13643-016-0384-4.
  9. Macleod MR, O'Collins T, Howells DW, Donnan GA. Pooling of animal experimental data reveals influence of study design and publication bias. Stroke. 2004;35(5):1203-8. doi: 10.1161/01.STR.0000125 719.25853.20. PMID: 15060322.
  10. Hooijmans CR, Rovers MM, de Vries RB, Leenaars M, Ritskes-Hoitinga M, Langendam MW. SYRCLE's risk of bias tool for animal studies. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2014;14(1):1-9. doi: 10.1186/1471-2288-14-43. PMID: 24667063.
  11. Li F, Li G, Hu H, Liu R, Chen J, Zou S. Effect of parathyroid hormone on experimental tooth movement in rats. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2013;144(4):523-32. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2013.05.010. PMID: 24075660.
  12. Takano-Yamamoto T, Kawakami M, Kobayashi Y, Yamashiro T, Sakuda M. The effect of local application of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on osteoclast numbers in orthodontically treated rats. J Dent Res. 1992; 71(1):53-59. doi: 10.1177/00220345920710010901. PMID: 1311005.
  13. Soma S, Iwamoto M, Higuchi Y, Kurisu K. Effects of continuous infusion of PTH on experimental tooth movement in rats. J Bone Miner Res. 1999;14:546-54. doi: 10.1359/jbmr.1999.14.4.546. PMID: 10234575.
  14. Soma S, Matsumoto S, Higuchi Y, Takano-Yamamoto T, Yamashita K, Kurisu K, et al. Local and chronic application of PTH accelerates tooth movement in rats. J Dent Res. 2000;79(9):1717-24. doi: 10.1177/00220345000790091301. PMID: 11023269.
  15. Seifi M, Eslami B, Saffar AS. The effect of prostaglandin E2 and calcium on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. Eur J Orthod. 2003;25(2):199-204. doi: 10.1093/ejo/25.2.199. PMID: 12737218.
  16. Seifi M, Hamedi R, Khavandegar Z. The effect of thyroid hormone, prostaglandin E2, and calcium gluconate on orthodontic tooth movement and root resorption in rats. J Dent (Shiraz). 2015;16(1):35-42. PMID: 26106633.
  17. Salazar M, Hernandes L, Ramos AL, Micheletti KR, Albino CC, Nakamura Cuman RK. Effect of teriparatide on induced tooth displacement in ovariectomized rats: a histomorphometric analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011;139(4):337- 44. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.08.030. PMID: 21457840.
  18. Guan L, Lin S, Yan W, Chen L, Wang X. Effects of calcitonin on orthodontic tooth movement and associated root resorption in rats. Acta Odontol Scand. 2017;75(8):595-602. doi: 10.1080/00016357. 2017.1365375. PMID: 28814141.
  19. Goldie RS, King GJ. Root resorption and tooth movement in orthodontically treated, calcium-deficient, and lactating rats. Am J Orthod. 1984; 85(5):424-30. doi: 10.1016/0002-9416(84)90163-5. PMID: 6586081.
  20. Lee HS, Heo HA, Park SH, Lee W, Pyo SW. Influence of human parathyroid hormone during orthodontic tooth movement and relapse in the osteoporotic rat model: A preliminary study. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2018;21(3):125-131. doi: 10.1111/ocr.12226. PMID: 29671936.
  21. Kale S, Kocadereli I, Atilla P, Aşan E. Comparison of the effects of 1,25 dihydroxycholecalciferol and prostaglandin E2 on orthodontic tooth movement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2004;125(5):607- 614. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2003.06.002. PMID: 15127030.
  22. Taddei SR, Andrade I Jr, Queiroz-Junior CM, Garlet TP, Garlet GP, Cunha Fde Q, et al. Role of CCR2 in orthodontic tooth movement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop.2012;141(2):153-60. doi: 10.1016/ j.ajodo.2011.07.019. PMID: 22284282.
  23. Huang H, Williams RC, Kyrkanides S. Accelerated orthodontic tooth movement: Molecular mechanisms. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2014; 146(5):620–632. doi: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2014.07.007. PMID: 25439213.
  24. Dandajena TC, Ihnat MA, Disch B, Thorpe J, Currier GF. Hypoxia triggers a HIF-mediated differentiation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells into osteoclasts. Orthod Craniofac Res.2012;15(1):1-9. doi: 10.1111/j. 1601-6343.2011.01530.x. PMID: 22264322.
  25. Ren Y, Maltha JC, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM. The rat as a model for orthodontic tooth movement-a critical review and a proposed solution. Eur J Orthod. 2004;26(5):483-90. doi: 10.1093/ejo/26.5.483. PMID: 15536836.
  26. Goodman, Gilman. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 12th ed California: McGraw Hill; 2011.
  27. Kamata M. Effect of parathyroid hormone on tooth movement in rats. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ. 1972;19(4):411-425. doi:10.11480/btmd.190406.
  28. Miura F, Kamata M. Proceedings: Effect of parathyroid hormone on tooth movement in rats. Calcif Tissue Res. 1974;15(2):168.
  29. Carmeliet G, Van Cromphaut S, Daci E, Maes C, Bouillon R. Disorders of calcium homeostasis. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab.2003;17(4):529-546. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2003.08.001. PMID: 14687587.
  30. Hay DL, Christopoulos G, Christopoulos A, Poyner DR, Sexton PM. Pharmacologic discrimination of calcitonin receptor: Receptor activity modifying complexes. Mol Pharmacol.2005;67(5):1655–1665. doi: 10.1124/mol.104.008615. PMID: 15692146.
  31. Qin H, Yang FS. Calcitonin may be a useful therapeutic agent for osteoclastogenesis syndromes involving premature eruption of the tooth. Med Hypotheses. 2008; 70(5):1048-1050. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2007. 08.024. PMID: 18023993.
  32. Takada K, Kajiya H, Fukushima H, Okamoto F, Motokawa W, Okabe K. Calcitonin in human odontoclasts regulates root resorption activity via protein kinase A. J Bone Miner Metab. 2004;22(1): 12-8. doi: 10.1007/s00774-003-0441-7. PMID: 14691681.
  33. Kanzaki H, Shinohara F, Itohiyakasuya K, Ishikawa M, Nakamura Y. Nrf2 activation attenuates both orthodontic tooth movement and relapse. J Dent Res. 2015;94(6):787-794. doi: 10.1177/0022034515577814. PMID: 25795629.
  34. Sakakura Y, Fujiwara N, Sugawara M, Nawa T. In vitro effects of calcitonin and/or parathyroid hormone on odontogenesis of mouse embryonic molars. J Dent Res. 1989;68(8):1279–1284. doi: 10.1177/0022034 5890680081301. PMID: 2632617.