Aim: Hygiene is a challenge of orthodontic treatment due to its appliances and can lead to periodontal diseases. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a preventive technique for periodontal diseases owing to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study reviews the effect of aPDT on the management of gingivitis induced by orthodontic treatment.
Methods: The research was conducted using databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane via inputting keywords such as photodynamic therapy, photo-activated chemotherapy, photoactivated disinfection, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, laser-activated disinfection, light-activated disinfection, laser therapy, gingivitis, gingival inflammation, and orthodontic patient. The time frame for searching articles was from January 2010 to July 2022.
Results: In terms of anti-inflammatory properties, aPDT technique is associated with reductions in clinical parameters (probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque score, and plaque index) as well as paraclinical parameters (levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF- α, IL-1β, and human beta defensin-2). Also, this technique has caused a decline in the number of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Prevotella intermedia, although the effect was short-term (one month).
Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrated that aPDT is an effective and safe method in reducing gingivitis induced by orthodontic treatment via its reduction effect on dental plaque, gingival inflammation, inflammatory reactions, and infective pathogens load.