Document Type : Original Article
Associate professor, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Assistant professor, Department of Community Oral Health, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Mashhad, Iran
Dentist, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Resident, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has presented significant challenges for healthcare professionals, particularly in the field of dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the changes in infection control measures in dentistry before and during the pandemic among Iranian dentists.
Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December 2020, and included dental healthcare professionals (DHCPs) practicing dentistry in Iran. Participants completed a web-based survey that included demographic profiles, practice-related details, and information on implemented infection control measures. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the software SPSS v. 26, and a P-value<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 303 dentists, 200 (66%) of whom practiced specialized dentistry and 103 (34%) were general dentists, responded to the questionnaire. The majority of participating dentists (85.5%) were aware of the importance of patient screening for COVID-19 symptoms. There was a statistically significant rise in adherence to hand hygiene practices. The utilization of personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, masks, and face shields also exhibited significant increases amid the pandemic. Dentists shifted from using surgical masks to N95 respirators (p=0.05) and white coats to disposable gowns (p<0.001). We noted a significantly greater tendency towards adopting air ventilation systems, surface disinfection and prescribing preprocedural mouth rinses among DHCPs.
Conclusion: The study findings indicate increased compliance with infection control protocols during the COVID-19 pandemic among Iranian DHCPs and highlight the modifications made to infection control measures in dentistry.
- Bandyopadhyay S, Baticulon RE, Kadhum M, Alser M, Ojuka DK, Badereddin Y, Kamath A, Parepalli SA, Brown G, Iharchane S, Gandino S. Infection and mortality of healthcare workers worldwide from COVID-19: a systematic review. BMJ global health. 2020 1;5(12):e003097. doi: 10.1136/bmjgh-2020-003097. PMID: 33277297.
- Gómez-Ochoa SA, Franco OH, Rojas LZ, Raguindin PF, Roa-Díaz ZM, Wyssmann BM, Guevara SLR, Echeverría LE, Glisic M, Muka T. COVID-19 in Health-Care Workers: A Living Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prevalence, Risk Factors, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes. Am J Epidemiol. 2021;190(1):161-175. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwaa191. PMID: 32870978.
- Meng L, Ma B, Cheng Y, Bian Z. Epidemiological Investigation of OHCWs with COVID-19. J Dent Res. 2020;99(13):1444-1452. doi: 10.1177/0022034520962087. PMID: 32985329.
- Peng X, Xu X, Li Y, Cheng L, Zhou X, Ren B. Transmission routes of 2019-nCoV and controls in dental practice. Int J Oral Sci. 2020;12(1):9. doi: 10.1038/s41368-020-0075-9. PMID: 32127517
- Behfarnia P, Fakheran O, Zargar Z. Evaluation of Covid-19 protection knowledge and practice of dentists in Isfahan in a clinical environment. Journal of Dental Medicine. [in Persian] 2022;35:1-9.
- Sohrabi C, Alsafi Z, O'Neill N, Khan M, Kerwan A, Al-Jabir A, Iosifidis C, Agha R. World Health Organization declares global emergency: A review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Int J Surg. 2020;76:71-76. doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2020.02.034. PMID: 32112977.
- Spagnuolo G, De Vito D, Rengo S, Tatullo M. COVID-19 Outbreak: An Overview on Dentistry. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(6):2094. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17062094. PMID: 32235685.
- Wynants L, Van Calster B, Collins GS, Riley RD, Heinze G, Schuit E, Albu E, Arshi B, Bellou V, Bonten MM, Dahly DL ,et.al. Prediction models for diagnosis and prognosis of covid-19: systematic review and critical appraisal. bmj. 2020;369. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1328. PMID: 32265220
- zzetti R, Nisi M, Gabriele M, Graziani F. COVID-19 Transmission in Dental Practice: Brief Review of Preventive Measures in Italy. J Dent Res. 2020;99(9):1030-1038. doi: 10.1177/0022034520920580. PMID: 32302257.
- Wadia R. Transmission routes of COVID-19 in the dental practice. Br Dent J. 2020;228(8):595. doi: 10.1038/s41415-020-1547-1. PMID: 32332957.
- avialble at: https://www.cdc.gov/oralhealth/infectioncontrol/statement-COVID.html.
- Cagetti MG, Cairoli JL, Senna A, Campus G. COVID-19 Outbreak in North Italy: An Overview on Dentistry. A Questionnaire Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(11):3835. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17113835. PMID: 32481672.
- Barabari P, Moharamzadeh K. Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) and Dentistry-A Comprehensive Review of Literature. Dent J (Basel). 2020;8(2):53. doi: 10.3390/dj8020053. PMID: 32455612.
- Karaaslan F, Dikilitaş A, Aydin EÖ. Comparison of COVID-19 relevant knowledge and attitudes of clinical and preclinical dental students in Turkey. Balkan journal of dental medicine. 2020;24(3):127-33. doi: 10.2478/bjdm-2020-0021.
- Noushi N, Oladega A, Glogauer M, Chvartszaid D, Bedos C, Allison P. Dentists' Experiences and Dental Care in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Insights from Nova Scotia, Canada. J Can Dent Assoc. 2021;87:l5. PMID: 34343068.
- Ataş O, Talo Yildirim T. Evaluation of knowledge, attitudes, and clinical education of dental students about COVID-19 pandemic. PeerJ. 2020;8:e9575. doi: 10.7717/peerj.9575. PMID: 32821538.
- Ather A, Patel B, Ruparel NB, Diogenes A, Hargreaves KM. Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19): Implications for Clinical Dental Care. J Endod. 2020;46(5):584-595. doi: 10.1016/j.joen.2020.03.008. PMID: 32273156.
- Tysiąc-Miśta M, Dziedzic A. The Attitudes and Professional Approaches of Dental Practitioners during the COVID-19 Outbreak in Poland: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(13):4703. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17134703. PMID: 32629915.
- Mehrnia N, Eghbali Zarch R, Sadeghipour M. Knowledge and therapeutic approach of Iranian dentists toward COVID-19 pandemic. Caspian Journal of Dental Research. 2022;11(1):46-55. doi:10.22088/cjdr.11.1.46.
- Tysiąc-Miśta M, Dubiel A, Brzoza K, Burek M, Pałkiewicz K. Air disinfection procedures in the dental office during the COVID-19 pandemic. Med Pr. 2021;72(1):39-48. doi: 10.13075/mp.5893.01005. PMID: 33063773.
- Nordrum OL, Aylward P, Callaghan M. Hospital doctors' attire during COVID-19 and beyond: time for a permanent change. Ir J Med Sci. 2022;191(6):2445-2447. doi: 10.1007/s11845-022-02922-1. PMID: 35064535.
- Akbari N, Salehiniya H, Abedi F, Abbaszadeh H. Comparison of the use of personal protective equipment and infection control in dentists and their assistants before and after the corona crisis. J Educ Health Promot. 2021;10:206. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_1220_20. PMID: 34395643.
- Cheng HC, Chang YJ, Liao SR, Siewchaisakul P, Chen SL. The impact of COVID-19 on knowledge, attitude, and infection control behaviors among dentists. BMC Oral Health. 2021;21(1):584. doi: 10.1186/s12903-021-01946-w. PMID: 34798843.
- Tokuc B, Coskunses FM. Knowledge, attitude and practice of dentists in Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Turkey. Eur Oral Res. 2020;54(2):86-91. doi: 10.26650/eor.20200049. PMID: 33474553.
- Vundavalli S, Sujanamulk B, Kotti AB, Raghunath RG, Manyam R, Doppalapudi R, Chalapathi Rao D. COVID-19 prevalence and infection control practices among dentists in Andhra Pradesh State, India. Work. 2023;75(3):743-751. doi: 10.3233/WOR-210362. PMID: 36683521.
- Li RW, Leung KW, Sun FC, Samaranayake LP. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the GDP. Part II: implications for GDPs. Br Dent J. 2004;197(3):130-4. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4811522. PMID: 15311240.
- Marui VC, Souto MLS, Rovai ES, Romito GA, Chambrone L, Pannuti CM. Efficacy of preprocedural mouthrinses in the reduction of microorganisms in aerosol: A systematic review. J Am Dent Assoc. 2019 Dec;150(12):1015-1026.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.adaj.2019.06.024. PMID: 31761015.
- Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect. 2020;104(3):246-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022. PMID: 32035997.
- Al Mortadi N, Al-Khatib A, Alzoubi KH, Khabour OF. Disinfection of dental impressions: knowledge and practice among dental technicians. Clin Cosmet Investig Dent. 2019;11:103-108. doi: 10.2147/CCIDE.S205144. PMID: 31191035.