Document Type : Original Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Orthodontics, Dental School, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Dental School, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran

3 private dentist


Aim: Space closure after extraction of teeth is one of the most challenging steps in orthodontic treatments. Nickel-titanium close coil springs are used as a superior appliance in the said field for space closure, but high expenses associated with them have pushed dentists toward using elastomeric chains. This study was planned to compare nickel-titanium to one of the newest reinforced types of elastomeric chains – Super Slick.
Methods: This research was planned as a prospective analytical study with a split-mouth design, and was performed on 11 randomly selected participants referring to the specialty clinic of Guilan University of Medical Sciences. After leveling and alignment, patients were referred for simultaneous extraction of first premolars. For closing the space after extraction, randomly, the nickel-titanium close coil spring was assigned to one quadrant and the Super Slick elastomeric chain to the other. Patients were followed-up every month for three months, and in every session using a digital caliper the rate of space closure resulting from extraction of first premolars was measured from the distogingival wing of the canine bracket to the mesiogingival wing of the second premolar bracket. The monthly rate of space closure was calculated in millimeters, and the results regarding Super Slick Chains and nickel-titanium springs were compared and statistically analyzed using the t-test and nonparametric tests.
Results: Based on the results of the t-test, the rate of the premolars extraction space closure in the first month, second month, and third month showed no significant differences between Super Slick elastomeric chains (1.82±0.27) and nickel-titanium close coil springs (1.90±0.4). Also, based on the said test, the general speed of space closure during the three months was not meaningfully different (p=0.489).
Conclusion: Considering that there was not a significant difference in the rate of space closure between elastomeric chains and nickel-titanium close coil springs during the three months of the study, it can be concluded that with time, the strength of the reinforced elastic chains for retraction of canine teeth is similar to that of the nickel-titanium springs. A look at the results shows that the claims of the manufacturers of reinforced elastic chains regarding force conservation are not very far from reality.


Main Subjects

  1. Yao K, Zhu G, Chen M, Zhang B, Wu Y, Li P. Effect of surgery-first orthognathic approach on oral healthrelated quality of life: A systematic review. Angle Orthod. 2020;90(5):723-33. doi: 10.2319/112619-749.1. PMID: 33378482.
  2. Pinzan-Vercelino CR, Costa AC, Ferreira MC, Bramante FS, Fialho MP, de Araújo Gurgel J. Comparison of gingival
    display in smile attractiveness among restorative dentists, orthodontists, prosthodontists, periodontists, and laypeople. J Prosthet Dent. 2020;123(2):314-21. doi: 10.1016/j.prosdent.2019.03.023. PMID: 31153615.
  3. Bou Wadi MN, Freitas KM, Freitas DS, Cançado RH, Oliveira RC, Oliveira RC, et al. Comparison of profile attractiveness between class III orthodontic camouflage and predictive tracing of Orthognathic surgery. Int J Dent. 2020;2020. doi: 10.1155/2020/7083940. eCollection 2020. PMID: 32963533.
  4. Nanda R. Biomechanics and esthetic strategies in clinical orthodontics. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2005.
  5. Javanmardi Z, Salehi P. Effects of Orthokin, Sensikin and Persica mouth rinses on the force degradation of elastic
    chains and NiTi coil springs. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2016;10(2):99-105. doi: 10.15171/joddd. 2016.016. PMID: 27429726.
  6. Eduarda Assad Duarte M, Martins Machado R, Fonseca Jardim da Motta A, Nelson Mucha J, Trindade Motta A. Morphological simulation of different incisal embrasures: perception of laypersons, orthodontic patients, general dentists and orthodontists. J Esthet Restor Dent. 2017;29(1):68-78. doi: 10.1111/jerd. 12272. PMID: 27767236.
  7. Ribeiro GL, Jacob HB. Understanding the basis of space closure in Orthodontics for a more efficient orthodontic treatment. Dental Press J Orthod. 2016;21(2):115-25. doi: 10.1590/2177-6709.21.2. 115-125.sar. PMID: 27275623.
  8. Al-Thomali Y, Mohamed RN, Basha S. Torque expression in self-ligating orthodontic brackets and conventionally ligated brackets: A systematic review. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9(1):e123. doi: 10.4317/jced.53187. PMID: 28149476.
  9. Khanemasjedi M, Moradinejad M, Javidi P, Niknam O, Jahromi NH, Rakhshan V. Efficacy of elastic memory chains versus nickel–titanium coil springs in canine retraction: a two-center split-mouth randomized clinical trial. Int Orthod. 2017;15(4):561-74. doi: 10.1016/j. ortho.2017.09.011. PMID: 29153282.
  10. Kardach H, Biedziak B, Olszewska A, Golusińska-Kardach E, Sokalski J. The mechanical strength of orthodontic elastomeric memory chains and plastic chains: An in vitro study. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017;26(3):373-8. doi: 10.17219/acem/61957. PMID: 28791809.
  11. Patel A, Thomas B. In vivo evaluation of the force degradation characteristics of four contemporarily used elastomeric chains over a period of 6 weeks. J World Fed Orthod. 2018;7(4):141-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ejwf.2018. 09.001
  12. Moghaddam SF, Kamali MD. Force decay and discoloration of thermoplastic and thermoset orthodontic elastomeric chains. Braz Dent Sci. 2022; 25(1). doi: 10.4322/bds.2022.e2612
  13. Lin WT, Cheng HC, Shen YK, Chen YJ, Chen CF. Synthetic Elastomeric Chain–A Literature Review. J Taiwan
    Orthod. 2022;25(1):3. doi: 10.30036/TJO.201303_25(1). 0003.
  14. Sebastian B, Bhuvaraghan A, Thiruvenkatachari B. Orthodontic space closure in sliding mechanics: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Orthod. 2022;44(2):210-25. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cjab047. PMID: 34609513.
  15. Talwar A, Bhat SR. Comparative evaluation of nickeltitanium closed coil spring and Elastomeric chain for canine retraction. A randomized clinical trial. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2018;17(10):70-5. doi: 10.9790/0853- 1710097075
  16. Ustriyana P, He R, Srirangapatanam S, Chang J, Arman ST, Sidhu S, et al. Food hardness can regulate orthodontic
    tooth movement in mice. J Periodontal Res. 2022;57(2):269-83. doi: 10.1111/jre.12945. PMID: 34894155.
  17. Oshagh M, Khajeh F, Heidari S, Torkan S, Fattahi HR. The effect of different environmental factors on force degradation of three common systems of orthodontic space closure. Dent Res J. 2015;12(1):50-6. doi: 10.4103/1735 3327.150331. PMID: 25709675.
  18. Mohammed H, Rizk MZ, Wafaie K, Almuzian M. Effectiveness of nickel‐titanium springs vs elastomeric chains in orthodontic space closure: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2018;21(1):12- 9. doi: 10.1111/ocr.12210. PMID: 29265578.