Background and Objective: Hygiene is one of the challenges of orthodontic treatment that has become complicated due to its appliances and can lead to periodontal diseases. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is one of the preventive techniques for periodontal diseases owing to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study reviews the effect of aPDT on the management of gingivitis induced by orthodontic treatment.
Method and material: The research was conducted using databases such as Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane via inputting keywords such as photodynamic therapy, photo-activated chemotherapy, photoactivated disinfection, antimicrobial photodynamic therapy, laser-activated disinfection, light-activated disinfection, laser therapy, gingivitis, gingival inflammation, orthodontic patient. The time frame for searching articles was from January 2010 to December 2020.
Results: In terms of anti-inflammatory properties, aPDT technique is associated with reductions in clinical parameters (probing depth, bleeding on probing, plaque score, plaque index) as well as paraclinical parameters (levels of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, TNF- α, IL-1β, human beta defensin-2); also, this technique has caused a decline in the number of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Prevotella intermedia, although the effect was short-term (1 month).
Conclusion: The results of the study demonstrated that aPDT is an effective and safe method in reducing gingivitis induced by orthodontic treatment via its reduction effect on dental plaque, gingival inflammation, inflammatory reactions as well as infective pathogens load.