The purpose of this review was to address the question whether mandibular distractionostegenesis (DO) has any effect on temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A literature survey from the pub Med database used the medical subject heading terms osteodistraction, T.M.J and 13 articles written in English were obtained. mandibular DO may accompany with some resorption & remodeling of TMJ but apparently if correctly used produces less TMJ problems compared with conventional mandibular osteotomies and even according to some studies, It is beneficial to structure and position of TMJ. This technique has been proposed for advancement of mandible in patients with TMJ problem and for ramus lengthening for prevention of relaps and TMJ problems. Mandibular Do can be a valuable technique for reconstruction of ramus and condyle in severe mandibular deformities such as TMJ ankylosis and hemifacial microsomia. Transverse distraction of mandible may accompany with TMJ problems and should be used cautiously.