1 Associated professor, Orthodontic department, Dental Faculty, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
2 Dentist, Hamadan, Iran
Background and aim: Cleft lip and palate is a common craniofacial congenital malformation. Treatment of this deformity has always been a matter of great concern for physicians and specialists. Data on the incidence and prevalence rate of this condition can help medical authorities plan for the healthcare of these patients. Present study aimed to determine the incidence rate and related risk factors of cleft lip and palate in Hamadan province in 2007.
Materials and methods: In this study, 29,822 newborns were evaluated in Hamadan Province hospitals, Iran. Variables such as neonatal gender, parents’ occupations, place of residence, family background, parental consanguinity, and neonatal co-occurring disorders, as well as maternal factors such as age at pregnancy, diseases during pregnancy, medications, drug abuse, smoking, alcohol consumption, radiography, and radiotherapy during pregnancy were recorded. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS version 13.
Results: 25 neonates (14 male and 11 female subjects) were born with various forms of cleft lip and cleft palate. The incidence rate was 0.83 per 1000 live births. Cleft lip and palate (bi or unilateral) and isolated cleft palate were the most and least frequently reported cases, respectively. In total, 28% of the newborns presented with other co-occurring disorders. Consanguineous marriage was reported in approximately 28% of the neonates’ parents and 12% of the mothers used medications such as phenytoin, imipramine, and trifluoperazine during pregnancy.
Conclusion: The incidence rate of cleft lip and palate was close to the average global rate and reports in European and East Asian countries. The incidence rate of clefts was higher in males, compared to females. According to the results, parental consanguinity and mother’s medication, especially at the beginning of pregnancy, are regarded as risk factors for cleft lip and palate.