Objectives: Considering the changes in periodontal parameters after orthodontic treatment and lack of adequate evidence on the return of these parameters to normal, the aim of this study was to evaluate the time needed for recovery of periodontal parameters to normal after debonding.
Methods: In this prospective study, 24 patients (21 females and 3 males) with a mean age of 18.86 ± 4.64 years were included, who were in the final stage of their orthodontic treatment and ready for debonding of orthodontic brackets. The most important inclusion criteria were: No history of periodontal problems, no extensive restorations and caries, no smoking, no systemic disorders and no calculus. In each session, the patients were given oral health instructions and then probing depth (PD), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and bleeding on probing (BOP) of the first molars and central incisors of each quadrant were evaluated at the time of debonding (T1), and one (T2), two (T3) and three (T4) months later; in patients who did not return to normal status (GI ≤ 0.5, negative BOP, PD ≤ 3 mm) after 3 months, the measurements were repeated in subsequent months (up to 6 months). ANOVA followed by pairwise Tukey comparisons were used for determining differences in PD, GI, BOP and PI between the time intervals.
Results: In general, all the parameters were decreased from T1 to T4. Furthermore, comparisons between different intervals using post hoc Tukey test showed that decreases in PD of the buccal surface and proximal surface in comparison to debonding time were significant during the first and second months, respectively (P < 0.05). Interpretation of statistical data showed a significant reduction in GI after two months. BOP became negative and significantly different after one month in half of the teeth and two months in the other teeth. PI generally decreased from T1 to T4.
Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, periodontal parameters returned to normal one to two months after debonding.