1 Integrated Orthodontic Services S.r.l., Via Cavour 52 C, 23900 Lecco, Italy

2 Department of Orthodontics, Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, Parma University, Via Gramsci 14 - 43126 Parma, Italy


Context: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recently published its “Summary of Infection Prevention Practices in Dental Settings: Basic Expectations for Safe Care”, but information concerning compliance, occupational hazards, and specific recommendations for orthodontic facilities is less widely available.
Evidence Acquisition: We searched electronic English articles published in PubMed and Google Scholar databases (2010- May 2016) using various combinations of the key indexing terms.
Results: 95 articles were selected for comprehensive reading according to the inclusion criteria. Problems and difficulties for orthodontic offices in applying the recommendations have been divided into nine focus areas concerning the quality of supplies, the procedures necessary to adhere to the standard precautions of hand hygiene, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), respiratory hygiene/cough etiquette, sharps safety, orthodontic instrument reconditioning, cleaning and disinfecting clinical contact surfaces and dental unit water lines, and impression disinfection.
Conclusions: On the basis of our experience in a university department of orthodontics and private orthodontic offices, we believe that innovative thinking based on better knowledge, education and training, ergonomics, and task-specific, evidence-based guidelines and resources are required to improve compliance with infection control recommendations.