Background: Occlusal loads are always present though not widely considered in orthodontic treatments. Applied force systems are analyzed in detail and taught but their interaction with occlusal force is oftentimes ignored. Numeric evaluation of this combination by finite element method is the main goal of this research.
Objectives: The present study has implemented FEA to investigate the effect of orthodontic force application on the tooth-periodontium-alveolar bone system.
Materials and Methods: A 3D model of a lower premolar was designed. The model contained cortical and spongy bone, PDL, and tooth. A 1.73 N force decomposed to 1 N in each plane axis was applied as a random levelling and aligning force to assess the von Mises stress produced at the mesial aspect of the PDL from cervical down to the apical area. At the second phase a 200-Newton intruding force vector was applied simulating the occlusal force. The effects of the combination force system were evaluated in the same area of the PDL.
Results: The maximum finding of von Mises for both stages were in found in the cervical area. This was almost 0.267 MPa for the first stage and 2.27 MPa for the second stage.
Conclusions: Our findings show that the co-existence of heavy occlusal forces due to clenching or bruxism in our tooth-periodontium-orthodontic force system has a significant influence on the magnitude and location of the high stress areas.