Document Type : Original Article
Associate Professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Resident, Department of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
Aim: Dentistry is a stressful profession, and dental students are susceptible to different forms of stress and psychological pressures. Investigating the amount of this stress and knowing the sources that cause it, can help in creating a supportive and stress-reducing educational environment.
Methods: Fifty-nine senior dental students of Tehran Faculty of Dentistry participated in this cross-sectional descriptive study. The data was collected by DASS-21 questionnaire using a 4-scale measure. The total stress scores of the students were calculated at the clinical departments of the Dental School. The severity of depression, anxiety, and stress was calculated for the students. The comparison of the total stress scores at different departments was made by ANOVA, and the effect of demographic factors on predicting the stress scores was determined by linear regression analysis. P-values <0.05 were considered as significant.
Results: Among the total participants, 72.9% (n=43) showed different levels of depression; 57.7% (n=34) had different levels of anxiety and 64.3% (n=38) exhibited different levels of stress. The total stress scores of the students were mostly reported in the endodontics (12.59, P<0.05) and oral medicine (9.2, P<0.05) departments, while the least total scores were found in the orthodontics (3.89, P<0.05) and oral and maxillofacial surgery (4.25, P<0.05) departments.
Conclusion: The senior dental students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences have high levels of depression, anxiety, and stress. The highest levels of stress were related to the departments of endodontics and oral medicine among the educational departments. It appears that dental students living away from their families and the students whose mothers have high educational levels require further support in this respect.
- Tangade PS, Mathur A, Gupta R, Chaudhary S. Assessment of stress level among dental school students: An Indian-1 Outlook. Dent Res J. 2011;8(2):95-101. PMID: 22013469.
- Schmitter M, Liedl M, Beck J, Rammelsberg P. Chronic stress in medical and dental education. Med Teach. 2008;30(1):97–9. doi: 10.1080/01421590701769571. PMID: 18278661.
- Basudan S, Binanzan N, Alhassan A. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students. Int J Med Educ. 2017;8:179-186. doi: 10.5116/ijme.5910.b961. PMID: 28553831.
- Morse Z, Dravo U. Stress levels of dental students at the Fuji School of Medicine. Eur J Dent Educ. 2007;11:99-103. doi: 1111/j.1600-0579.2007.00435.x. PMID: 17445006.
- Faruk, MO, Mamun, MA, Siddique AB et al. Risk Factors for Depression and Anxiety Disorders Among Bangladeshi Dental Students: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study. Int J Ment Health Addiction. 2023;21(3):1501–14. doi:10.1007/s11469-021-00603-1.
- Rabiei M, Rad EH, Sani MK, Sani SK. Dental Environment Stress and The Related Factors in the Iranian Dental Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2021;35:190. doi: 10.47176/mjiri.35.190. PMID: 36042826.
- Baldwin PJ, Dodd M, Rennie JS. Young dentists-work, wealth, health and happiness. Br Dent J. 1999;186:30-36. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4800010. PMID: 10028740.
- Newton JT, Baghaienaini F, Goodwin SR, Invest J, Lubbock M. Stress in dental school: a survey of students. Dent Updat. 1994; 21(4):162-4. PMID: 7867867.
- Abu-Ghazaleh SB, Sonbol HN, Rajab LD. A longitudinal study of psychological stress among undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan. BMC Med Educ. 2016;16(1):1-6. doi: 10.1186/s12909-016-0612-6. PMID: 26968682.
- Al-Samadani KH, Al-Dharrab A. The perception of stress among clinical dental students. World J Dent. 2013;4(1):24-8. doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10015-1197.
- Naidu RS, Adams JS, Simeon D, Persad S. Sources of stress and psychological disturbance among dental Students in the West Indies. J Dent Educ. 2002;1021-30. PMID: 12374261.
- Sofola OO, Jeboda SO. Perceived sources of stress in Nigerian dental students. Eur J Dent Educ. 2006;10(1):20–3. doi: 1111/j.1600-0579.2006. 00391.x. PMID: 16436080.
- Lovibond PF, Lovibond SH. The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) with the beck depression and anxiety inventories. Behave Res Ther. 1995; 33(3):335-43. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(94)00075-u. PMID: 7726811.
- Moradipanah F. Effect of light music on depression, anxiety and stress (DASS-21) for Iranian population [Master degree]. Iran. Tarbiyat Modarres University of Tehran; 2005.
- Kanyakumari DH, Siddanagoudra SP, Kataraki T. Sources and levels of stress in dental students. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2014;3(9):1342-8.
- Uraz A, Tocak YS, Yozgatligil C, Cetiner S, Bal B. Psychological well-being, health, and stress sources in Turkish dental students. J Dent Educ. 2013;77(10):1345-55. PMID: 24098039.
- Arrieta Vergara K, Díaz Cárdenas S, González Martínez F. Symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress among dental students: prevalence and related factors. Rev Colomb Psiquiatr. 2013;42(2):173-81. doi: 10.1016/ S0034-7450(13)70004-0. PMID: 26572812.
- Akbari M, Nejat A, Dastorani S, Rouhani A. Evaluation of Stress Level and Related Factors among Students of Mashhad Dental School (Iran) in Academic Year of 2008-2009. J Mashhad Dent Sch. 1989;23(3):165-76. doi: 10.22038/JMDS.2011.956.
- Newbury-Birch D, Lowry RJ, Kamali F. The changing patterns of drinking, illicit drug use, stress, anxiety and depression in dental students in a UK dental school: A longitudinal study. Br Dent J. 2002;192(11):646-9. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.4801448. PMID: 12108944.
- Stewart DW, de Vries J, Singer DL, Degen GG, Wener P. Canadian dental students’ perceptions of their learning environment and psychological functioning over time. J Dent Educ. 2006;70(9):972-81. PMID: 16954419.
- Rajab LD. Perceived sources of stress among dental students at the University of Jordan. J Dent Educ. 2001;65(3):232-41. PMID: 11318088.
- Yap AU, Bhole S, Teo CS. A cross cultural comparison of perceived sources of stress in dental school environment. J Dent Educ. 1996;60(5):459-64. PMID: 8636515.
- Acharya S. Factors affecting stress among Indian dental students. J Dent Educ. 2003;67(10):1140-8. PMID: 14587679.
- Shahravan A, Karimi-Afshar M, Torabi M, Safari S. Assessment of Dental Environment Stress among Clinical Dentistry Students in Kerman Dental School, Iran, in 2014. Strides Dev Med Educ. 2016;12(4):586-95.
- Hawazin W. Elani, Paul J. Allison, Ritu A. Kumar, Laura Mancini, Angella Lambru, Christophe Bedos. A Systematic Review of Stress in Dental Students. J Dent Educ. 2013;78(2):226-42. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.9.1.57.
- Mehdizadeh M, Kheirkhah F, Vojdani FH, Noori BS. Stress Factors in Dental Students of Babol University. J Dent Sch. 2014;32(3): 151-8. doi:10.22037/v32i3.24791.
- Jowkar Z, Masoumi M, Mahmoodian H. Psychological stress and stressors among clinical dental students at Shiraz School of Dentistry, Iran. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2020;11:113-120. doi: 10.2147/AMEP.S236758. PMID: 32104133.
- Manolova MS, Steganova VP, Manchorova-Veleva NA, Panayotov IV, Levallois B, Tramini P, et al. A five-year comparative study of perceived stress among dental students at two European eaculties. Folia Med. 2019;61(1):134-2. doi:10.2478/folmed-2018-0052.
- Sedky NA. Perceived sources of stress among junior & mid-senior Egyptian dental students. Int J Health Sci. 2012;6(2):141–57. doi: 10.12816/0005990. PMID: 23580895.
- Shahbazi mogadam M, nasoohi N, zahirodin A, Valaee N, Etedal monfared S. Evaluation of Stress level, its Sources and Related Factors Among Senior Dental Students at Islamic Azad University in year 2010. J Res Dent Sci. 2011; 8 (3) :130-5. doi:10.18869/acadpub.rme.9.1.57.
- Zahirodin A, Yarani P. Study of stressors in dentistry students of Shahid Beheshti University [Dissertation], Centre of Behaviour Science Researching. Shahid Beheshti University: 2001.
- Pohlmann K, Jonas I, Ruf S, Harzer W. Stress, burnout and health in clinical period of dental education. Eur J Dent Educ. 2005;9(2):78-84. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2004.00359.x. PMID: 15811155.
- Halboub E, Alhajj MN, Al-Wesabi MA, Al-Sananni S, Mufadhal A. Dental environment and war-related stress among dental students, Yemen. East Mediterr Health J. 2019;25(8):529-36. doi: 10.26719/emhj.19.002. PMID: 31612966.
- Alhajj MN, Khader Y, Murad AH, Celebic A, Halboub E, Marquez JR, et al. Perceived sources of stress amongst dental students: A multi-country study. Eur J Dent Educ. 2018;22(4):258-71.
- Kumar S, Dagli RJ, Mathur A, Jain M, Prabu D, Kulkarni S. Perceived sources of stress amongst Indian dental students. Eur J Dent Educ. 2009; 13(1):39-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0579.2008.00535.x. PMID: 19196292.
- Mohebian M, Dadashi M, Motamed N, Safdarian E. Evaluation of depression, anxiety, stress levels and stressors among dental students of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences in academic year of 2015-2016. J Med Educ Dev. 2017;10(26):60-71. doi:10.29252/10.26.60.
- Ramazani N, Nazari A. Dental Environmental Stress among Clinical Dentistry Students in Zahedan School of Dentistry. Iran J Med Educ. 2013; 13(9):753-65.
- Halboub E, Alhajj MN, AlKhairat AM, Madani Sahaqi A, Ali Quadri MF. Perceived stress among undergraduate dental students in relation to gender, clinical training and academic performance. Acta Stomatol Croat. 2018;52(1):37-45. doi: 10.15644/asc52/1/6. PMID: 30034003.
- Narimani SH, Mousavi M, Malayjerdi S. Evaluation of Stress Level and Related Factors among Students of Ardabil Dental School in Academic year of 2017-2018. Ardabil Univ Med Sci; 2018.
- Muirhead V, Locker D. Canadian dental students’ perceptions of stress. J Can Dent Assoc. 2007;73(4):323-8. PMID: 17484796.
- Al-Sowygh ZH. Academic distress, perceived stress and coping strategies among dental students in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J. 2013;25(3):97-105. doi: 10.1016/j.sdentj.05.002. PMID: 24179318.
- Musser LA, Lloyd C. The relationship of marital status and living arrangement to stress among dental students. J Dent Educ. 1985;49(8):573-8. PMID: 3861663.
- Sayedmoallemi Z, Naseri F. Assessment of the perceived stress due to different educational factors among senior dental students of Medical Sciences Universities in Iran. J Isfahan Dent Sch. 2014;9(6):498-508.
- Rabiei M, Safarpour M. Assessment of Dental Environment Stress and Related Factors in Dental Students. Res Med Educ. 2017;9(1):57-46. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.rme.9.1.57.